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Filtering matches by keypoint coordinates

asked 2012-10-12 08:52:24 -0600

age gravatar image

Hi. I'm working on the task of matching keypoints between video frames. What I do here is:

  1. do a simple match()
  2. calculate averade DMatch.distance
  3. do a radiusMatch() for that averade distance
  4. calculate average difference of matched points' y coordinates
  5. filter matches by their points' y coordinate difference compared to average

These steps procude somewhat satisfactory results. However, there are currently two issues:

  • Sometimes Match.queryIdx or Match.trainIdx after a radiusMatch() are outside of keypoint vectors' ranges.
  • Image coordinates displayed by the Qt GUI do not match point coordinates in-code; some matches which should have definitely filtered out still pass (see image below)

Any feedback on my approach here would be appreciated as well.

Code:

(note: C++11 lambdas are used; OpenCV 2.4.2)

#include <opencv2/highgui/highgui.hpp>
#include <opencv2/nonfree/features2d.hpp>
#include <opencv2/imgproc/imgproc.hpp>
#include <opencv2/calib3d/calib3d.hpp>
#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
#include <algorithm>
#include <array>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

#define VFILE "scope.webm"

using namespace cv;
using namespace std;

int main (void)
{
  VideoCapture capture (VFILE);
  capture.set (CV_CAP_PROP_POS_MSEC, 138180.0);
  namedWindow (VFILE, CV_WINDOW_KEEPRATIO | CV_GUI_EXPANDED
              | CV_WINDOW_AUTOSIZE);

  SurfFeatureDetector       fd (100);
  SurfDescriptorExtractor   de;
  FlannBasedMatcher         dm;
  vector<KeyPoint>          base_keypoints, keypoints;
  Mat                       base_descriptors, descriptors;
  vector< vector<DMatch> >  matches;
  vector<DMatch>            m;
  Mat                       frame, f, image;

  // make a first capture to work with
  capture >> image;
  cvtColor (image, image, CV_RGB2GRAY);
  resize (image, image, Size(0, 0), 0.7, 0.7, CV_INTER_AREA);
  fd.detect (image, base_keypoints);
  de.compute (image, base_keypoints, base_descriptors);

  for (;;)
    {
      // skip some frames
      for (int i = 0; i <= 3; i++)
        capture >> frame;

      cvtColor (frame, frame, CV_RGB2GRAY);
      resize (frame, frame, Size(0, 0), 0.7, 0.7, CV_INTER_AREA);
      fd.detect (frame, keypoints);
      de.compute (frame, keypoints, descriptors);

      // calculate avrage distance for radiusMatch
      float avg = 0;
      dm.match (base_descriptors, descriptors, m);
      for_each (m.begin (), m.end (), [&avg] (DMatch m)
        {
          avg += m.distance;
        });
      avg /= ( m.size () * 4 );

      cout << "avg: " << avg << endl;

      if (avg)
        dm.radiusMatch (base_descriptors, descriptors, matches, avg);

      // calculate average difference of y coordinates
      double dy = 0;
      unsigned int el = 0;
      for_each (matches.begin (), matches.end (), [base_keypoints, keypoints,
                                                  &dy, &el] (vector<DMatch> v)
        {
          if (v.size () == 0)
            return;

          if (v[0].trainIdx >= base_keypoints.size ()
              || v[0].queryIdx >= keypoints.size ())
            return;

          dy += fabs (base_keypoints[v[0].trainIdx].pt.y
                      - keypoints[v[0].queryIdx].pt.y);
          el++;
        });
      dy /= el;
      cout << "   avg dy: " << dy << endl;

      m.clear ();
      for (unsigned int i = 0; i < matches.size(); i++)
        {
          if (matches[i].size () >= 1)
            {
              DMatch v = matches[i][0];
              double ldy = fabs (base_keypoints[v.trainIdx].pt.y
                                - keypoints[v.queryIdx].pt.y);
              if ((fabs (dy - ldy) <= 5))
                {
                  cout << "ldy: " << ldy << endl;
                  m.push_back (v);
                }
            }
        }                      
      matches.clear ();

      drawMatches (image, base_keypoints, frame, keypoints, m, f,
                  Scalar::all(-1), Scalar::all(-1), vector<char>(),
                  DrawMatchesFlags::DEFAULT
                  | DrawMatchesFlags::NOT_DRAW_SINGLE_POINTS);

      // current frame becomes previous frame
      frame.copyTo (image);
      descriptors.copyTo (base_descriptors);
      base_keypoints = keypoints;


      imshow(VFILE, f);
      waitKey (-1);
    }
  return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}

Here "avg dy" is the average difference between keypoints' y coordinates and "ldy" is this difference for each match (keypoint pair).

See console: coordinates in-code seem wrong

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Comments

distance - is not the distance between 2d points. It is Euclidean distance between descriptors of two points.

tenta4 gravatar imagetenta4 ( 2013-12-20 08:41:55 -0600 )edit

1 answer

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answered 2012-10-12 09:13:52 -0600

Vladislav Vinogradov gravatar image

When you match descriptors via

dm.radiusMatch(base_descriptors, descriptors, matches, avg);

base_descriptors - is query

descriptors - is train

queryIdx is index in base_keypoints vector and trainIdx is index in keypoints vector

Just swap queryIdx and trainIdx in your code.

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Asked: 2012-10-12 08:52:24 -0600

Seen: 4,198 times

Last updated: Oct 12 '12